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This-essay is a7806272.htm which is available at the web-site See more notes at the bottom. Previous-Essay <== This-Essay ==> Following-Essay By-Months By-Years By-Words Webs of Like-&-Un-Like ESSAYS <==> Like-&-UN-Like This-One ========================================================== %TEACHING SCIENTIFIC VALUES 780627 Scientists' values may best be taught openly in terms of the specific contexts within which they are appropriate. Students who avoid scientists because of their values do so because they know only contexts within which scientists' values are inappropriate---for such contexts may be the only contexts with which the students are familiar. When scientists fail to openly and explicitly point out the impropriety of affirming scientists' values within those contexts, the students understandable fear that the scientists are affirming the propriety of their values within those contexts; e.g., intimate personal relationships, political processes, religious life, and self-discovery. Since the students are unfamiliar with the limited contexts within which the scientists' values are appropriate, the students perceive the scientists' values only in terms of contexts within which they are inappropriate---and so with personal integrity refuse to affirm the scientists' values and/or master scientists' knowledge/skills. The pattern of scientists' instruction thus appears to such students as a collusive venture which must be rejected. They may be motivated to engage in battle with the scientists and engineers who appear to be seducing students into the scientists' collusions. Such frontal attacks engage the manipulative scientists in battle on their own grounds and terms, without revealing the nature of either the value-conflicts or the foolish affirmations of values within inappropriate contexts. Such battles tend to harden positions and promote even more strident affirmations of values without respect for their limited ranges of propriety. Such battles are counter-productive to all participants. Scientists need help in learning how to affirm their values only within the range of the value's propriety--- avoiding implicit inappropriate affirmations. Appropriate affirmations do not occasion attack the way that inappropriate affirmations do. Scientists need assistance in recognizing the character and manner of historical instances of inappropriate affirmations of scientists' values. Offering scientists such assistance will occasion less defensiveness than attacks, and so will help generate meaningful dialogue. The wiser scientists will welcome such assistance, because it will further both science and their personal careers. They might even encourage the government to support those who can offer such critically needed assistance. It would surely be in the public interest to do so. (c) 2005 by Paul A. Smith in Search for Integrity and Honesty (On Being Yourself, Whole and Healthy) ==========================================================
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