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This is Previous-Essay <== This-Essay ==> Following-Essay Click HERE on this line to find essays via Your-Key-Words. {Most frequent wordstarts of each essay will be put here.} ========================================================== %RESEARCH FOR INTEGRATIVE OBJECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS 880106 Human knowledge of and education regarding relationships differs according to the kind of objects and relationships which are the focus of the knowledge and education. Knowledge regarding objects entails objective relationships between people and objects; i.e., relationships in which dialogue between participants in the relationship is not primarily personal/reflexive in character. The interaction between participants in objective relationship does not entail mutual reflection upon previous moments in the history of the relationship. Knowledge regarding objects at the same time entails self reflection on the part of the person; but at a muted level. The objective person does not know of any self reflection on the part of the object, and usually assumes that self reflection on the part of the objects in the relationship does not exist. Objective people tend to repress reflection upon reflexive relationships, and so tend to minimize their knowledge and education relating to reflexive relationships. A comprehensive program of research must entail a search for ways to integrate all kinds of knowledge into a coherent whole. A program of research which takes for granted the repression of knowledge regarding reflexive relationships will fail to develop knowledge into a coherent whole, for reflexive relationships and knowledge of them will remain outside the analysis which such a program will develop. Part of any comprehensive research program must therefore entail the development of a knowledge of the various kinds of relationships in which humans participate. Such an understanding and knowledge is inherently reflexive in that it reflects upon human participation in relationships. Reflexive knowledge tends to be repressed by people who are dedicated to compulsive objectivity as the way to transcend bias. Reflexive knowledge tends to be confused with confusion by people who do not have an integrative approach to the full range of human relationships, experiences, knowledge and education. Knowledge flows from human participation; apart from human participation humans cannot know anything. A theory of human knowledge which takes for granted that bias can be reduced by minimizing human participation (through the objectification of human relationships) is a theory based upon the repression of basic truths regarding human participation in knowledgeable relationships. Human knowledge will not be complete until it includes an adequate theory in terms of which to understand such patterns of objectification, and what motivates the objectification process and the associated alienation from integrative knowledge. The process of creating and preserving knowledge is a social process which entails many interactions among people. Knowledge which is developed in isolation by one person is not real human knowledge unless it becomes part of a social process of humans participating in integrative relationships. How durable any knowledge is, depends upon how thoroughly it is integrated into the fabric of the society. A group of specialists who are alienated from the rest of society, cannot develop durable knowledge while so alienated; the fruits of their labors will die with them. Thus the process of research and education must be a socially integrative process in order for it to succeed. This means that the process of research and education must be reflexive to succeed, and any tendency to avoid reflexivity with pride is likely to undermine the venture. A successful research and educational program must work with integrative reflexivity which is based upon a coherent understanding of the nature of human realities, relationships, experiences, knowledge and education; for all of these are essentials in human knowledge. Apart from them there can be no knowledge and no consensus as to what is true and worthy of interest and attention. Research and education entail affirmations of what is worthy of interest and attention, and decisions that other possible foci of interest and attention are not as worthy. A failure to make those decisions openly and honestly is likely to lead to confusion and disintegration, as decisions become successively more and more biased through the repression of consciousness of reflexive realities, in preference for compulsively objective relationships devoid of honest human dialogue. Honest human dialogue is essential to robust knowledge and education. Honest human dialogue cannot be compulsively objective. Compulsively objective people can not be integrative researchers who contribute with personal integrity to robust knowledge in a coherent way. (c) 2005 by Paul A. Smith in (On Being Yourself, Whole and Healthy) ==========================================================