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This is Previous-Essay <== This-Essay ==> Following-Essay Click HERE on this line to find essays via Your-Key-Words. {Most frequent wordstarts of each essay will be put here.} ========================================================== %DISINTEGRATIVE PUNISHMENT GUILT EVIL SHAME 880603 The use of guilt and shame as punishment for failure to conform leads to personal and communal disintegration. This is true whether the form of conformity is generally respected or not; i.e., whether or not those who do conform are respected people. The use of guilt and shame to alienate those who conform from those who do not conform is evil because the essence of evil is alienation. The use of guilt and shame as punishment is not an effective way of promoting either personal or communal integrity, because they are forms of rejection in which the essence of the action is disintegration; the separation of rejection. Disintegration does not lead to coherent respectable behavior; even though it may motivate deceptive behavior which is respected. It is evil to motivate people to merely appear worthy of respect, because dishonesty is fundamentally alienative in its consequences. The essence of evil is alienation. The essentially evil act is the rejection of the person who is regarded as evil, by those who regard themselves as good enough to know who is evil. Evil resides in relationships among people, not in the people themselves. It is not people who are evil, but the disintegrative relationships among people, which are evil. The ideals, values, principles, attitudes, etc. which lead people, often lead them into relationships which are disintegrative; leading them as persons and their communities to disintegrate. Personal relationships which are characterized by increasing alienation are evil relationships. Guilt and shame are not effective cures for such disintegrative relationships, for they merely expand the scope of rejection and alienation. (c) 2005 by Paul A. Smith in (On Being Yourself, Whole and Healthy) ==========================================================