This-essay is a7901231.htm which is available at the web-site www.essayz.com. See more notes at the bottom. Previous-Essay <== This-Essay ==> Following-Essay By-Months By-Years By-Words Webs of Like-&-Un-Like ESSAYS <==> Like-&-UN-Like This-One ========================================================== %JUSTIFICATION OF EXCOMMUNICATION 790123 Reasonable people would presumably excommunicate others for good reasons when seen in broad and long-range perspectives. Their justification of excommunication would be based upon a consideration of the costs and the benefits to society of excommunicating some members of society for good cause. Excommunication as a punishment would be justified on the basis of what its consequences have been shown to be. Reasonable people will not indulge themselves in excommunication as an immature reaction to behavior which they do not like, they will use excommunication wisely and justly. Under what circumstances is excommunication wise and just? To answer that question we need to recognize the forms which excommunication takes. Sometimes it is nothing more than ignoring the excommunicated person, becoming indifferent to the person as a person. Excommunication may involve blocking professional channels of communication, rejecting papers offered for publication. It may involve keeping the excommunicated person off important faculty committees so that there will be reduced opportunities for the person to communicate with other faculty members. Students may be excommunicated by means of failing grades, or put-down responses in the classroom which inhibit further class-room communications. Non-scientists may be excommunicated by put-downs in which scientists arrogate to themselves the unquestioned power to decide what kinds of knowledge are legitimate, and what kinds of knowledge are illegitimate. Persons may be excommunicated by putting them in hospitals, mental wards, old-folks- homes, prisons, etc. The motives for these actions may be benevolent and unselfish---and yet effect excommunication. When we have recognized the range of forms of excommunication we may turn to asking when each form is wise and just. This has rarely been done, so the answer to the question is much in doubt. It is doubtful that any form of excommunication is ever wise and just. The effects of excommunication when seen in the broad perspectives are unlikely to be constructive, no matter what the traditional practices and perceptions may be. In any case, the justification of excommunication will be difficult to accomplish in the presence of a God of Love who works to promote reconciliation sacrificially. (c) 2005 by Paul A. Smith in www.essayz.com Search for Integrity and Honesty (On Being Yourself, Whole and Healthy) ==========================================================Lines beginning with a percent sign are KEYWORDS for use in ESSAY-System Searches. Their terminal digits are dates of writing in the format @yymmdd#, where @ = a means 99, @ = b means 20, and # = is a within-date essay-count. Links to date-adjacent essays are near page top & bottom.
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